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Decline in HbA1c during the first year of elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor treatment in the Danish cystic fibrosis cohort: Short title: Decline in HbA1c after elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor treatment

Bibi Uhre Nielsen, Mette Frahm Olsen, Inger Hee Mabuza Mathiesen, Tacjana Pressler, Christian Ritz,T erese Lea Katzenstein, Hanne Vebert Olesen, Marianne Skov, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Thomas Peter Almdal, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen

Jan 1, 2024



Elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ETI) has improved the clinical status of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), however, whether ETI impacts glucose tolerance remains unknown. We aimed to study the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and CF related diabetes (CFRD) status after initiation of ETI.


We included individuals ≥12 years treated with ETI in Denmark in a longitudinal observational study. HbA1c was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment initiation. Change in HbA1c was assessed in mixed models adjusted for age, sex, glucose tolerance and prior CFTR modulator treatment. In a sub-population with CFRD, we assessed the change in insulin usage, hypoglycemic events and the 30-day continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters (i.e., average blood glucose, time below (≤3.9 mM) and above (>10.0 mM) normal range, and the variation in glucose) after 12 months of treatment.


Among 321 individuals with CF, HbA1c declined by 2.1 mmol/mol [95 % confidence interval (CI): -2.6; -1.5 mmol/mol] after 3 months and by 2.3 mmol/mol [95 %CI: -2.8; -1.9 mmol/mol] after 12 months of ETI treatment. The decline was independent of glucose tolerance status at baseline. In 26 individuals with CFRD at baseline, the mean decline in HbA1c was 3.6 mmol/mol [95 %CI: -6.9; -0.4 mmol/mol] after 12 months, but we did not observe any change in insulin usage, weekly number of hypoglycemic events or CGM parameters.


In the Danish CF cohort, HbA1c declined over 12 months of ETI treatment, however, among a subset with CFRD, we observed no change in insulin usage and CGM glucose levels.

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